It is review of historical-related visual cultural media. These can include feature and documentary films, television shows, music videos, etc. They should deal with US and/or transnational histories. For each paper, choose four visual cultural titles. These should pertain to:

1.white supremacy/race relations/African-American/black-transnational histories

2.hetero-patriarchy (gender)

3.queer representations/sexuality

4.class/economic inequalities

5.national identities

6.transnational issues

7.representations of histories as a political act

Once you choose your four visual cultural titles, choose four academic texts (books, journal articles, .edu websites, etc.) corresponding to your visual cultural items. These should be incorporated throughout the paper as footnotes and/or parenthetical references and used to provide a broader understanding/context to your four visual cultural items. The paper should be four-pages plus a one-page works cited page listing the four academic texts (MLA format).

Final Paper Rubric

Interesting Title

Page 1:Introductory Paragraph:

My four visual items are 1. One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1975) ( 

2. 3. 4. Then 2 general sentences about the 4 visual items in terms of histories, politics, representations, and stereotypes.

Visual item 1 analysis, connect to academic text 1 (Author’s last name in parentheses)

Page 2:Visual item 2 analysis, connect to academic text 2 (Author’s last name in parentheses)

Page 3:Visual item 3 analysis, connect to academic text 3 (Author’s last name in parentheses)

Page 4:Visual item 4 analysis, connect to academic text 4 (Author’s last name in parentheses), conclusion paragraph, restate 4 visual items, add 2 general sentences.

Page 5:

Works Cited

Basic format: Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title of the Book in Italics. 

City Where the Book was Published: Publisher, Year of Publication. 

This information can be found in books’ copyright pages, in the first few pages of your book.

For example:

Adams, Rachel. Sideshow USA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Beltrán, Mary., and Camilla Fojas. Mixed Race Hollywood. New York: New York University 

Press, 2008.

McKee, Alison L. The Woman’s Film of the 1940s: Gender, Narrative, and History. New York: 

Routledge, 2014.

Monteyne, Kimberly. Hip Hop on Film: Performance Culture, Urban Space, and Genre 

Transformation in the 1980s. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2013.

Book Suggestions

1. Disney

Aronstein, Susan Lynn., Tison Pugh, and Ebooks Corporation. The Disney Middle 

Ages: A Fairy-tale and Fantasy Past. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Bazzini, Doris., Lisa Curtin, Serena Joslin, Shilpa Regan, & Denise Martz. “Do 

Animated Disney Characters Portray and Promote the Beauty–Goodness Stereotype?” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 40.10 (October 2010): 2687–2709. 

Bell, Elizabeth, Lynda Haas, and Laura Sells. From Mouse to Mermaid: The 

Politics of Film, Gender, and Culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.

Breaux, Richard M. “After 75 Years of Magic: Disney Answers Its Critics, 

Rewrites African American History, and Cashes In on Its Racist Past.” Journal of African American Studies 14.4 (December 2010): 398-416. 

Cheu, Johnson. Diversity in Disney Films: Critical Essays on Race, Ethnicity, 

Gender, Sexuality and Disability. Jefferson: McFarland, 2013.

Davis, Amy M. Good Girls and Wicked Witches: Women in Disney’s Feature 

Animation. Eastleigh, U.K.: John Libbey Publishing; Bloomington, IN: 

Distributed in North America by Indiana University Press, 2006.

Giroux, Henry A., and Grace Pollock. The Mouse That Roared: Disney and the 

End of Innocence. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2010.

Key, Adam. “A Girl Worth Fighting For: A Rhetorical Critique of Disney 

Princess Mulan’s Bisexuality.” Journal of Bisexuality 15.2 (2015): 268-286.  

Wasko, Janet. Understanding Disney: The Manufacture of Fantasy. Cambridge: 

Malden, MA: Polity, 2001.

Wertenbruch, Anna. Representation of Blackness in Walt Disney’s “The Princess 

and the Frog.” Grin Verlag, 2013.

Whitley, David S. The Idea of Nature in Disney Animation. Aldershot, 

Hampshire; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2008.

2. Gender Stereotypes

Bingham, Dennis. Acting Male: Masculinities in the Films of James Stewart, Jack 

Nicholson, and Clint Eastwood. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1994.

Blaetz, Robin. Women’s Experimental Cinema: Critical Frameworks. Durham: 

Duke University Press, 2007.

Combe, Kirk., and Brenda M. Boyle. Masculinity and Monstrosity in 

Contemporary Hollywood Films. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Doane, Mary Ann., Patricia Mellencamp, and Linda Williams. Re-vision: Essays, 

in Feminist Film Criticism. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1984. 

Franklin, Peter. Seeing Through Music: Gender and Modernism in Classic 

Hollywood Film Scores. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. 

Gabbard, Krin, and William Luhr. Screening Genders. New Brunswick, N.J.: 

Rutgers University Press, 2008. 

Gates, Philippa. Detecting Women: Gender and the Hollywood Detective Film. 

Albany: State University of New York Press, 2011.

Green, Philip. Cracks in the Pedestal: Ideology and Gender in Hollywood. 

Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1998.

Heller-Nicholas, Alexandra. Rape-Revenge Films: A Critical Study. Jefferson, 

N.C.: McFarland, 2011.

Kaklamanidou, Betty. Genre, Gender and the Effects of Neoliberalism: The New 

Millennium Hollywood Rom Com. Abingdon, Oxon; New York: Routledge, 2013. 

Kirkham, Pat., and Janet Thumim. Me Jane: Masculinity, Movies, and Women. 

New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.

Kord, Susanne., and Elisabeth Krimmer. Hollywood Divas, Indie Queens, and TV 

Heroines: Contemporary Screen Images of Women. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

Laing, Heather. The Gendered Score: Music in 1940s Melodrama and the 

Woman’s Film. Aldershot, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2007.

McCabe, Janet. Feminist Film Studies: Writing the Woman Into Cinema. London; 

New York: Wallflower, 2004.

Ryan, Judylyn S. Spirituality as Ideology in Black Women’s Film and Literature. 

Charlottesville, Virginia: University of Virginia Press, 2005.

Schaefer, Eric. Bold! Daring! Shocking! True: A History of Exploitation Films, 

1919-1959. Durham: Duke University Press, 1999.

Schubart, Rikke. Super Bitches and Action Babes: The Female Hero in Popular 

Cinema, 1970-2006. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 2007.

Thumim, Janet. Celluloid Sisters: Women and Popular Cinema. New York: St. 

Martin’s Press, 1992.

Waldman, Diane., and Janet Walker. Feminism and Documentary. Minneapolis: 

University of Minnesota Press, 1999.

Williams, Linda. Screening Sex. Durham: Duke University Press, 2008.

4. Latin American Visual Cultural Stereotypes

Beltrán, Mary. Latina/o Stars in U.S. Eyes: The Making and Meanings of Film 

and TV Stardom. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009.

Berg, Charles Ramírez. Latino Images in Film: Stereotypes, Subversion, Resistance. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2002.

Borge, Jason. Latin American Writers and the Rise of Hollywood Cinema. New 

York: Routledge, 2008.

Cepeda, María Elena. Musical ImagiNation: U.S.-Colombian Identity and the 

Latin Music Boom. New York: New York University Press, 2010.

Clark, Walter Aaron. From Tejano to Tango: Latin American Popular Music. 

New York: Routledge, 2002.

Elena, Alberto, and Marina Díaz López. The Cinema of Latin America. London; 

New York: Wallflower, 2003.

Fernández l’Hoeste, Héctor D., and Juan Poblete. Redrawing the Nation: National 

Identity in Latin/o American Comics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Fojas, Camilla. Border Bandits: Hollywood On the Southern Frontier. Austin, 

Tex.: University of Texas Press, 2008.

Lopez, Yolanda. Breaking Chicana Stereotypes. Feminist Studies Inc, 1994.

Martin, Michael T. New Latin American Cinema. Detroit: Wayne State University 

Press, 1997.

Meléndez, A. Gabriel. Hidden Chicano Cinema: Film Dramas in the 

Borderlands. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2013. 

Mendible, Myra. From Bananas to Buttocks: The Latina Body in Popular Film 

and Culture. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007.

Molina-Guzmán, Isabel. Dangerous Curves: Latina Bodies in the Media. 

New York: New York University Press, 2010. 

Richards, Keith John. Themes in Latin American Cinema: A Critical Survey. 

Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2011. 

Rodriguez, Clara E. Latin Looks: Images of Latinas and Latinos in the U.S. 

Media. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1997.

_________. Heroes, Lovers, and Others: The Story of Latinos in Hollywood. 

Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books, 2004.

Shaw, Lisa, and Stephanie Dennison. Latin American Cinema: Essays On 

Modernity, Gender and National Identity. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 2005. 

Shaw, Lisa, and Stephanie Dennison. Pop Culture Latin America!: Media, Arts, 

and Lifestyle. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2005. 

Stock, Ann Marie. Framing Latin American Cinema: Contemporary Critical 

Perspectives. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997.

Thornton, Niamh. Revolution and Rebellion in Mexican Film. New York: 

Bloomsbury, 2013.

Tompkins, Cynthia. Experimental Latin American Cinema: History and 

Aesthetics. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2013.

6. Native American Stereotypes

Adare, Sierra. “Indian” Stereotypes in TV Science Fiction: First Nations’ Voices 

Speak Out. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2005.

Aleiss, Angela. Making the White Man’s Indian: Native Americans and 

Hollywood Movies. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2005.

Buscombe, Edward. The Searchers. London: British Film Institute, 2000.

______. ‘Injuns!’: Native Americans in the Movies. London: Reaktion, 2006.

Carstarphen, Meta G., and John P. Sanchez. American Indians and 

the Mass Media. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2012. 

Chavez, Raul S. Childhood Indians: Television, Film and Sustaining the White 

(Sub)Conscience.North Charleston, SC: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2010.

Churchill, Ward. Fantasies of the Master Race: Literature, Cinema, and the 

Colonization of Indigenous. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1998.

Cox, James H. Muting White Noise: Native American and European American 

Novel Traditions. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2006.  

Devoss, Danielle Nicole, and Patrick Russell Lebeau. “Reading and Composing 

Indians: Invented Indian Identity Through Visual Literacy.” The Journal of Popular Culture 43.1 (2010): 45-77.

Ford, John, and Richard J Anobile. John Ford’s Stagecoach, Starring John 

Wayne. New York: Universe Books, 1975.

Hearne, Joanna. Native Recognition: Indigenous Cinema and the Western. 

Albany, NY, USA: State University of New York Press, 2012. 

_______. Smoke Signals: Native Cinema Rising. Lincoln, NE, University of 

Nebraska Press, 2012.  

Howe, LeAnne, Harvey Markowitz, and Denise K. Cummings, Eds. Seeing Red—

Hollywood’s Pixeled Skins: American Indians and Film. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press; 2013.

Huhndorf, Shari M. Going Native: Indians in the American Cultural Imagination. 

Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001.  

Kilpatrick, Jacquelyn. Celluloid Indians: Native Americans and Film. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999.

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian: A Curious Account of Native People in 

North America. Minneapolis: Univ Of Minnesota Press, 2013.

Lewis, Randolph, and Project Muse. Navajo Talking Picture: Cinema On Native 

Ground. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2012.

Marubbio, M. Elise. Killing the Indian Maiden: Images of Native American 

Women in Film. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky, 2006.

Marubbio, M. Elise, and Eric L. Buffalohead. Native Americans On Film: 

Conversations, Teaching, and Theory. Lexington, Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky, 2013.

Mihesuah, Devon. American Indians: Stereotypes & Realities. Atlanta, GA: 

Clarity, 1996.

Nichols, Dudley, John Ford, and Ernest Haycox. Stagecoach. New York: Simon 

and Schuster, 1971.

Pearson, Jennifer., and Ellen L. Arnold. Representations of Native American 

Characters in Stephenie Meyer’s Twilight Saga. Thesis/dissertation: Greenville, NC: East Carolina University, 2011. 

Rader, Dean. Engaged Resistance: American Indian Art, Literature, and Film 

From Alcatraz to the NMAI. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2011.

Raheja, Michelle H. Reservation Reelism: Redfacing, Visual Sovereignty, and 

Representations of Native Americans in Film. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2010.

Rollins, Peter C., and John E O’Connor. Hollywood’s Indian: The Portrayal of 

the Native American in Film. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2003.

Rosenbaum, Jonathan., and British Film Institute. Dead Man. London: British 

Film Institute, 2000.

Schwarz, Maureen Trudelle. Fighting Colonialism with Hegemonic Culture: 

Native American Appropriation of Indian Stereotypes. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2013. 

Schweninger, Lee., and Project Muse. Imagic Moments: Indigenous North 

American Film. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 2013. 

Sheyahshe, Michael A. Native Americans in Comic Books: A Critical Study. 

Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 2008. 

Shively, JoEllen. 1992. “Cowboys and Indians: Perceptions of Western Films 

among American Indians and Anglos.” American Sociological Review 57: 725–34.

Singer, Beverly R. Wiping the War Paint Off the Lens: Native American Film and 

Video. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001.

Tahmahkera, Dustin. Tribal Television: Viewing Native People in Sitcoms. Chapel 

Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2014. 

Wood, Houston. Native Features: Indigenous Films from Around the World. 

New York: Continuum, 2008.

7. Orientalism

Bernstein, Matthew, and Gaylyn Studlar. Visions of the East: Orientalism in Film. 

New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1997.

Fuller, Karla Rae. Hollywood Goes Oriental: CaucAsian Performance in 

American Film. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2010.

Greene, Naomi. From Fu Manchu to Kung Fu Panda: Images of China in 

American Film. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press, 2014.

King, Homay. Lost in Translation: Orientalism, Cinema, and the Enigmatic 

Signifier. Durham [N.C.]: Duke University Press, 2010.

Locke, Brian. Racial Stigma On the Hollywood Screen From World War II to the 

Present: The Orientalist Buddy Film. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Marchetti, Gina. Romance and the “Yellow Peril”: Race, Sex, and Discursive 

Strategies in Hollywood Fiction. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. 

Yu, Hongmei. From Kundan to Mulan: A Political Economic Case Study of 

Disney. UK; Open Library of Humanities, 2015.

8. Queer Cinema

Aaron, Michele. New Queer Cinema: A Critical Reader. New Brunswick, N.J.: 

Rutgers University Press, 2004. 

Benshoff, Harry M., and Sean Griffin. Queer Cinema: The Film Reader. New 

York: Routledge, 2004.  

_______. Queer Images: A History of Gay and Lesbian Film in America. 

Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.  

Dyer, Richard. Now You See It: Studies on Lesbian and Gay Film. 

London; New York: Routledge, 1990. 

Farmer, Brett. Spectacular Passions: Cinema, Fantasy, Gay Male Spectatorships. 

Durham [N.C.]: Duke University Press, 2000.

Grossman, Andrew. Queer Asian Cinema: Shadows in the Shade. New York: 

Harrington Park Press, 2000.

Hanson, Ellis. Out Takes: Essays on Queer Theory and Film. Durham, NC: Duke 

University Press, 1999.

Humphrey, Daniel. Queer Bergman: Sexuality, Gender, and the European Art 

Cinema. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2014.

Kuzniar, Alice A. The Queer German Cinema. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford 

University Press, 2000.

Mennel, Barbara. Queer Cinema: Schoolgirls, Vampires and Gay Cowboys. 

London; New York: Wallflower Press, 2012.

Rees-Roberts, Nick. French Queer Cinema. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University 

Press, 2008.

Russo, Vito. The Celluloid Closet: Homosexuality in the Movies. New York: 

Harper & Row, 1981.

Spohrer, Erika. “Not a Gay Cowboy Movie?” Journal of Popular Film and 

Television 37.1 (2009): 26-33.

9. White Savior Film

Hughey, Matthew. “Cinethetic Racism: White Redemption and Black Stereotypes 

in “Magical Negro” Films.” Social Problems. 56.3 (2009): 543-577.

_______. The White Savior Film: Content, Critics, and Consumption. 

Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2014.

Vera, Hernan., and Andrew Gordon. Screen Saviors: Hollywood Fictions of 

Whiteness. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003.

10. Hip Hop Cinema

Donalson, Melvin Burke. Hip Hop in American Cinema. New York: Peter Lang, 2007.

Monteyne, Kimberly. Hip Hop On Film: Performance Culture, Urban Space, and Genre Transformation in the 1980s. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2013.

Watkins, S. Craig. Representing: Hip Hop Culture and the Production of Black 

Cinema. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

11. Music Videos

Austerlitz, Saul. Money for Nothing: A History of the Music Video, From the 

Beatles to the White Stripes. New York: Continuum, 2007.

Beebe, Roger, and Jason Middleton. Medium Cool: Music Videos From Soundies 

to Cellphones. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2007.

Emerson, Rana. “‘Where My Girls At?’ Negotiating Black Womanhood in 

Music Videos.” Gender and Society 16.1 (2002): 115-135.

Frith, Simon., Andrew Goodwin, and Lawrence Grossberg. Sound and Vision: 

The Music Video Reader. London; New York: Routledge, 1993

Fraser, Pete. Teaching Music Video. London: BFI, 2005.

Goodwin, Andrew. Dancing in the Distraction Factory: Music Television and 

Popular Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.

Hanson, Matt. Reinventing Music Video: Next-generation Directors, Their 

Inspiration, and Work. Burlington, MA: Focal Press, 2006.

Kleiler, David, and Robert Moses. You Stand There: Making Music Video. 

New York: Three Rivers Press, 1997.

Mundy, John. Popular Music on Screen: From the Hollywood Musical to Music 

Video. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999.

Railton, Diane., and Paul Watson. Music Video and the Politics of Representation. 

Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2011.

Roberts, Donald F., and United States. Office of National Drug Control Policy. 

Substance Use in Popular Music Videos. Washington, D.C.: The Office, 2002.

Roberts, Robin, and LC Collection (Library of Congress). Ladies First: Women in 

Music Videos. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1996.

Vernallis, Carol. Experiencing Music Video: Aesthetics and Cultural Context. 

New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.

________. Unruly Media: YouTube, Music Video, and the New Digital Cinema. 

New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.

12. Racial Stereotypes

Beltrán, Mary., and Camilla Fojas. Mixed Race Hollywood. New York: New York 

University Press, 2008.

Benshoff, Harry M., and Sean Griffin. America On Film: Representing Race, 

Class, Gender, and Sexuality At the Movies. 2nd ed. Malden, MA, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

Bernardi, Daniel. Classic Hollywood, Classic Whiteness. Minneapolis: University 

of Minnesota Press, 2001.

_______. The Birth of Whiteness: Race and the Emergence of U.S. Cinema. New 

Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1996. 

_______. The Persistence of Whiteness: Race and Contemporary Hollywood 

Cinema. London; New York: Routledge, 2008. 

Bogle, Donald. Bright Boulevards, Bold Dreams: The Story of Black Hollywood. 

New York: One World Ballantine Books, 2005.

Bowser, Pearl, and Louise Spence. Writing Himself Into History: Oscar 

Micheaux, His Silent Films, and His Audiences. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2000.

Bowser, Pearl, Jane Gaines, and Charles Musser. Oscar Micheaux & His Circle: 

African-American Filmmaking and Race Cinema of the Silent Era. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.

Covington, Jeanette. Crime and Racial Constructions: Cultural Misinformation 

About African Americans in Media and Academia. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 2010.

D’Antonio, Sheril. Contemporary African American Cinema. New York: P. Lang, 


Denzin, Norman K. Reading Race: Hollywood and the Cinema of Racial 

Violence. London; Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE, 2002. 

Diawara, Manthia. Black American Cinema. New York: Routledge, 1993.

Everett, Anna, and American Council of Learned Societies. Returning the Gaze: 

A Genealogy of Black Film Criticism, 1909-1949. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001.

Gabbard, Krin. Black Magic: White Hollywood and African American Culture. 

New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2004. 

Ginneken, Jaap van. Screening Difference: How Hollywood’s Blockbuster Films 

Imagine Race, Ethnicity, and Culture. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.

Gooding, F W., Khalid J Patterson, and Minority Reporter (Firm). You Mean, 

There’s Race in My Movie?: The Complete Guide to Understanding Race in Mainstream Hollywood. Silver Spring, MD.: On the Reelz Press, 2007.

Grant, W. R. Post-soul Black Cinema: Discontinuities, Innovations, and 

Breakpoints, 1970-1995. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Guerrero, Ed. Framing Blackness: The African American Image in Film. 

Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993.

Harris, Michael D. Colored Pictures: Race and Visual Representation. Chapel 

Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Hobson, Janell. Venus in the Dark: Blackness and Beauty in Popular Culture. 

New York: Routledge, 2005.

hooks, bell. Reel to Real: Race, Sex, and Class at the Movies. New York: 

Routledge, 1996.

Hughey, Matthew. “Cinethetic Racism: White Redemption and Black Stereotypes 

in “Magical Negro” Films.” Social Problems. 56.3 (2009): 543-577.

_______. The White Savior Film: Content, Critics, and Consumption. 

Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2014.

Jones, G. William. Black Cinema Treasures: Lost and Found. Denton: 

University of North Texas, 1991.

Keeling, Kara. The Witch’s Flight: The Cinematic, the Black Femme, and 

the Image of Common Sense. Durham: Duke University Press Books, 2007.

Klotman, Phyllis Rauch., and Janet K Cutler. Struggles for Representation: 

African American Documentary Film and Video. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999.

Lehman, Christopher P. The Colored Cartoon: Black Representation in American 

Animated Short Films, 1907-1954. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2007.

Leonard, David J. Screens Fade to Black: Contemporary African 

American Cinema. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers, 2006.

Lupack, Barbara Tepa. Literary Adaptations in Black American Cinema: 

From Micheaux to Morrison. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 2002.

Manatu, Norma. African American Women and Sexuality in the Cinema. 

Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2003.

Martin, Michael T. Cinemas of the Black Diaspora: Diversity, Dependence, and 

Oppositionality. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1995.

Mask, Mia. Divas On Screen: Black Women in American Film. Urbana: 

University of Illinois Press, 2009.  

________. Contemporary Black American Cinema: Race, Gender and 

Sexuality at the Movies. New York: Routledge, 2012.

Massood, Paula J. Black City Cinema: African American Urban Experiences in 

Film. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2003.

Nama, Adilifu. Black Space: Imagining Race in Science Fiction Film. Austin: 

University of Texas Press, 2008.

Reid, Mark. Black Lenses, Black Voices: African American Film Now. Lanham, 

MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

Rhines, Jesse Algeron. Black Film, White Money. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers 

University Press, 1996.

Richards, Larry. African American Films Through 1959: A Comprehensive, 

Illustrated Filmography. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1998.

Robinson, Cedric J. Forgeries of Memory and Meaning: Blacks and the Regimes 

of Race in American Theater and Film Before World War II. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007.

Sampson, Henry T. Blacks in Black and White: A Source Book On Black Films. 

Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1977. 

Scott, Ellen C. Cinema Civil Rights: Regulation, Repression, and Race in the 

Classical Hollywood Era. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2015.

Seewood, André. Slave Cinema: The Crisis of the African-American in Film. 

Philadelphia: Xlibris Corp., 2008.

Smith, Valerie, Ed. Representing Blackness: Issues in Film and Video. New 

Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1997.

Snead, James. White Screens/Black Images: Hollywood from the Dark Side. New 

York: Routledge, 1994.

Stewart, Jacqueline Najuma. Migrating to the Movies: Cinema and Black Urban 

Modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005. 

Vera, Hernan., and Andrew Gordon. Screen Saviors: Hollywood Fictions of 

Whiteness. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003.

Weisenfeld, Judith., and American Council of Learned Societies. Hollywood Be 

Thy Name: African American Religion in American Film, 1929-1949. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.

Williams, Roland Leander. Black Male Frames: African Americans in a Century 

of Hollywood Cinema, 1903-2003. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 2015.

Yearwood, Gladstone Lloyd., and Ohio University. Center for Afro-American 

Studies. Black Cinema Aesthetics: Issues in Independent Black Filmmaking. Athens, Ohio: Center for Afro-American Studies, Ohio University, 1982.

Young, Lola. Fear of the Dark: ‘Race’, Gender, and Sexuality in the Cinema. 

London; New York: Routledge, 1996.

13. Tyler Perry

Bell, Jamel Santa Cruze., and Ronald L Jackson II. Interpreting Tyler Perry: 

Perspectives on Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, 2013.

Manigault-Bryant, LeRhonda S., Tamura A. Lomax, and Carol B. Duncan. 

Womanist and Black Feminist Responses to Tyler Perry’s Productions. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.

14. Sports

Bass, Amy. In the Game: Race, Identity, and Sports in the Twentieth Century. 

New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

Brooks, Scott., Charles Kenyatta Ross, and Jr. History Symposium (27th : 2002) 

Porter L. Fortune. Race and Sport: The Struggle for Equality On and Off the Field. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2004.

Buford, Reuben A. Living through the Hoop: High School Basketball, Race, and 

the American Dream. New York: New York University Press, 2008. 

Burdsey, Daniel. Race, Ethnicity, and Football: Persisting Debates and Emergent 

Issues. New York: Routledge, 2011. 

Carrington, Ben. Race, Sport and Politics: The Sporting Black Diaspora. 

London: Sage Publications, 2010.

Christgau, John. Michael and the Whiz Kids: A Story of Basketball, Race, and 

Suburbia in the 1960s. Lincoln: Bison Books, 2013.

Duru, N. Jeremi. Advancing the Ball: Race, Reformation, and the Quest for Equal 

Coaching Opportunity in the NFL. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

García, Ignacio M. When Mexicans Could Play Ball: Basketball, Race, and 

Identity in San Antonio, 1928-1945. Austin: Universiy of Texas Press, 2013.

Jennings, Jay. Carry the Rock: Race, Football, and the Soul of an American City. 

New York: Rodale, 2010.

15. Television

Acham, Christine. Revolution Televised: Prime Time and the Struggle for Black 

Power. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004. 

Blake, John. The Post-Racial Revolution Will Be Televised. CNN. 23 Mar. 2014. 

Web. 24 Mar. 2014.

Bogle, Donald. Prime Time Blues: African Americans On Network Television. 

New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001. 

Davé, Shilpa. Indian Accents: Brown Voice and Racial Performance in American 

Television and Film. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2013.

Leonard, David J., and Lisa Guerrero. African Americans on Television: Race-ing 

for Ratings. Santa Barbara, California: Praeger, 2013. 

Torres, Sasha. Black, White, and in Color: Television and Black Civil Rights. 

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Turner, Sarah E., and Sarah Nilsen. The Colorblind Screen: Television in Post-

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