What would be a good response to this? 1

What would be a good response to this?

Pawnee Indians were made up of four different communities with the Chaui having the highest authority over all. The Chaui chief was the top authoritarian over the Kitkehahki, the Pitahauerat, and the Skidi. Most were located in a fairly large territory around the Rocky Mountains (West), The Niobrara River (North), the Missouri River (East), and the Arkansas River (South). Most of their villages however, were located near fertile land for growing crops which was in the Elkhorn river valley, Loup, and Platte (Kinbacher) because of the ample amount of timber and food sources. They were known for their gardening abilities. The women of this tribe were the ones that did most of the physical labor concerning growing of crops, rearing children, and teaching.

They had one religion called Tirawa, a creator of all living things. The beginning of mankind was said to have come about by celestial gods. They would refer to the ‘creation’ story about the first girl was the daughter of the morning star and that the first boy was that of the evening star, meaning the children of the sun and moon. Particular attention was given to the sky and its movements (Logt). This religion included sacrifices, sometimes human sacrifices, but mainly corn aka maize. They participated in what was called a ghost dance in hopes of ridding the territory of white men (Tribal directory). They had a great resistance to the Christianity that was trying to be forced among all Native Americans. They also believed that death was brought about by personal hostility and witchcraft.

In 1818 is when the Pawnee were first forced to get into negotiations with the federal government. By 1857, any treaties they had with the government would be null and void due to the surge of early settlers seeking land and the tribe was shipped off to a reservation in what was known as Indian territory in Oklahoma. Of course, this government run reservations were extremely neglectful and many Pawnee died because of illness, disease, and hunger. By 1900 there were roughly 500 Pawnee Indians left. Today there is around 2500 Pawnee Indians living throughout the United States. The Pawnee Indians lost almost all of their culture and traditions and it is said that very few if any can speak the language of their ancestors. There are two councils today. The Business Council and the Chiefs Council that was established in 1975 by the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of 1936. There are many government grants and other programs that support the costs and welfare of the tribal government (Blaine).

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