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The Question: Between 1500 and 1914, the “West” (that is Western Europe and post-1750 North America) became the most powerful part of the world. What changes and developments within the “West” made it more powerful than the other parts of the World, and how did those factors lead to Western colonization or domination of most of the rest of the World by 1914?
Specific Instructions: Remember that you are putting forward an argument here, not just restating all of the course material. Your first paragraph should introduce your topic and have a clear thesis argument. In your supporting points, discuss the major developments/events which changed the West (Western Europe and post-1750 North America). Think about what changed in the West (and what didn’t change in other parts of the World). Also show cause and effect in your supporting points, remember that industrialization led to the New Imperialism, not the other way around. You should use Candide and Things Fall Apart as evidence in your supporting points.
Please answer one of the two following questions in an essay you write on the paper provided with the exam.
Question 1: In Candide, What was Voltaire’s critic of his times (the pre-Enlightened Europe of the 1750s)? In your essay provide at least four examples of things he disliked. What solutions did Voltaire offer for these problems (think of El Dorado and the final chapter)?
Question 2: Based on Things Fall Apart, what was Umuofian society (Ibos in Nigeria) like before the arrival of European imperialists, and how did it change with the coming of European missionaries (agents of colonialism)? Consider how Umuofian society was organized, roots of social power, what people believed in, and class and gender equality.
1. The Treaty of ______________________________________________ established that the ruler of each country in Europe could determine the religion of his people (1 point).
2. In mid-19th Century Mexico, La Reforma was a conservative OR liberal/progressive (circle the right answer) political agenda put forward by Benito Juarez and his supporters (1 point).
3. The American colonies declared their independence from the British via ________________
____________________________________________________________________________ (which was proclaimed on July 4, 1776) (1 point).
4. Define Industralization: ________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________ (2 points).
5. Name two countries in North or South America that large number of Germans immigrated to in the 19th Century: ________________________________ and __________________________
(1 point each).
6. The character in Things Fall Apart who hung himself in the end as an act of defiance to European imperialism was ______________________________________ (1 point).
7. The __________________________________ Revolution became a slave revolt that also sought the enlightened goal of racial equality (1 point).
8. Adam Smith’s ideas about Capitalism are part of which version of the Enlightenment: collective OR individual (circle the right answer (1 point).
9. ________________________________ tried to impose the Continental System on the rest of Europe during the Napoleonic Wars to stop them from trading with Great Britain (1 point).
10. One of the five motives for the New Imperialism that we discussed in class was: ______________________________________________________________________________ (just 1 for 1 point total)
11. Define the Enlightenment: _____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________ (3 points)
12. In industrial society, the private sphere was space associated with the home OR with work/outside of the home (circle the right answer) (1 point).
13. Define Deism (the 18th Century version): _________________________________________
14. _________________________________________________ led the enlightened revolutions in South American (1 point).
15. An enlightened revolution that ended up becoming an example of the collective version of the Enlightenment was the ___________________________________ Revolution (1 point).
16. One goal/demand of 18th and 19th Century Liberalism was ___________________________
_____________________________________________________ (give 1 example for 1 point).
17. The industrial ____________________________ class favored Socialism (1 point).
18. The Industrial Middle Class lived in the Suburbs OR the slums (circle the right answer)
19. Europeans “peacefully” divided up Africa for their imperial conquest in a meeting known as the __________________________________________________________________ (1 point).
20. In England/Britain, the part of government that became the dominant force in the English/British political system was _______________________________________________________ (1 point).
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